Description Looking for support with the following: About different types of leadership directives and leadership styles. As a reflection of the

Description

Looking for support with the following:

About different types of leadership directives and leadership styles. As a reflection of the course, describe your leadership style and how your style will help you develop decision-making skills in your management career. One assessment you may use is here, but you may also use any leadership style assessment you find online to determine your style. Does this leadership style match your skills, abilities, and personality? Why or why not? 

Directions:

1- Discuss the concepts, principles, and theories      from the given slide and below souces. Cite your slide and cite any other      sources academic sources. ( VERY IMPORTANT )

Bonsu, S., & Twum-Danso, E., (2018). Leadership style in the global economy: A focus on cross-cultural and transformational leadership. Journal of Marketing and Management, 9(2), 7-52Muralidharan, E., & Pathak, S. (2019). Consequences of cultural leadership styles for social entrepreneurship: A theoretical framework. Sustainability, 11(4), 965. Retrieved from

:Choromides, C. (2018). Leadership and change management: A cross-cultural perspective.International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 24(2), 575-578.Shafai, A. (2018). Servant-leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia. The International Journal of Servant-Leadership,12(1), 297-335.

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Chapter 13
Leadership across Cultures
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Learning Objectives
• Describe the basic philosophic foundation
and styles of managerial leadership
• Examine the attitudes of European managers
toward leadership practices
• Compare and contrast leadership styles in
Japan with those in the United States
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Learning Objectives (continued)
• Review leadership approaches in China, the
Middle East, and developing countries
• Examine recent research and findings
regarding leadership across cultures
• Discuss the relationship of culture clusters
and leader behavior on effective leadership
practices, including increasing calls for more
responsible global leadership
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Effective Global Leadership
• Essential competency of leading MNCs
• Helps companies enter and operate in new
markets
• Achieved through the use of structured
programs that:
– Are designed to develop skills and capabilities
– Help the firms become more culturally sensitive,
adaptable, and able to effectively manage in
challenging global environments
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Leadership
• Process of influencing people to direct their
efforts toward the achievement of some
particular goal or goals
• Leaders and managers should:
– Develop skills in effective communication,
planning, organizing, and problem solving
– Exhibit the ability to focus on the future while
maintaining current organizational trends
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Table 13.1 – Perceived Differences:
Managers versus Leaders
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International Leadership
• Areas that help compare the foundations
– Philosophical grounding of how leaders view their
subordinates
• Theory X, theory Y, and theory Z
– Leadership approaches as reflected by autocraticparticipative behaviors of leaders
• Authoritarian, paternalistic, and participative
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Philosophical Assumptions
of Theory X Managers
• Workers do not like to work and will avoid it
whenever possible
• Workers have little ambition, try to avoid
responsibility, and like to be directed
• Primary need of employees is job security
• Use of coercion, control, and threats of
punishment is necessary
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Philosophical Assumptions
of Theory Y Managers
• Expenditure of physical and mental effort at
work is as natural to people as resting or
playing
• People will exercise self-direction and selfcontrol if committed to the goals
• Under proper conditions, the average human
being learns not only to accept but to seek
responsibility
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Philosophical Assumptions
of Theory Y Managers (continued)
• Commitment to objectives relies on the
rewards associated with their achievement
• Capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of
imagination, ingenuity, and creativity is widely
distributed throughout the population
• Intellectual potential of the average human
being is only partially tapped under conditions
of modern industrial life
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Philosophical Assumptions
of Theory Z Managers
• People are motivated by a strong sense of
commitment to be part of a greater whole
• Employees seek out responsibility and look for
opportunities to advance in an organization
• Employees who learn different aspects of the
business will be in a better position to
contribute to the broader goals of the
organization
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Philosophical Assumptions
of Theory Z Managers (continued)
• Organization will engender in employees
strong bonds of loyalty, making the
organization more productive and successful
– By making commitments to employees’ security
through lifetime or long-term employment
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Types of Leadership
Authoritarian leadership
• Use of work-centered behavior designed to ensure task
accomplishment
Paternalistic leadership
• Use of work-centered behavior coupled with a protective
employee-centered concern
Participative leadership
• Use of both work- or task-centered and people-centered
approaches to leading subordinates
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Figure 13.1 – Leader-Subordinate
Interactions
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Figure 13.2 – The Managerial Grid
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Areas Relevant to Leadership
• Help identify the attitudes toward leadership
practices across countries by investigating:
– Capacity for leadership and initiative
– Sharing information and objectives
– Participation
– Internal control
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Role of Level, Size, and Age on European
Managers’ Attitudes toward Leadership
• Higher-level managers tend to express more
democratic values than lower-level managers
in some countries
• Company size tends to influence the degree of
participative-autocratic attitudes
• Younger managers are more likely to have
democratic values in terms of:
– Leadership and initiative
– Sharing information and objectives
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Japanese Leadership Approaches
• Paternalistic
• Have greater belief in the capacity of
subordinates for leadership and initiative
• People express attitudes toward the use of
participation to a greater degree than others
• Above average in sharing information and
objectives and using internal control
• Place a strong emphasis on ambiguous goals
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Japanese Leadership Approaches
(continued)
• Benefits
– Leader maintains stronger control of the followers
– Manager ensures that the personnel are prepared
to deal with any situation and all its ramifications
– Leader maintains order and provides guidance
• Drawback
– Subordinates spend a lot of time overpreparing
their assignments
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Table 13.4 – Japanese versus U.S.
Leaderships Styles
Source: Adapted from William Ouchi, Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981).
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Variety Amplification and Variety
Reduction
• Variety amplification: Creation of uncertainty
and the analysis of many alternatives
regarding future action
– Used by Japanese managers
• Variety reduction: Limiting of uncertainty and
the focusing of action on a limited number of
alternatives
– Used by U.S. managers
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Findings of Research on Emerging
Leaders in China
• Show that the new generation group:
– Scored significantly higher on individualism than
the current and older generation groups
– Scored significantly lower on collectivism and
Confucianism than the other two groups
• Show that leadership is culturally influenced
– Greater exposure to Western societal influences
may result in leadership styles similar to those of
Western managers
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Table 13.5 – Differences between Middle
Eastern and Western Management
Source: From M. K. Badawy, “Styles of Mideastern Managers,” California Management Review 22, no. 3 (Spring 1980), pp. 51–58.
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Table 13.5 – Differences between Middle
Eastern and Western Management (continued)
Source: From M. K. Badawy, “Styles of Mideastern Managers,” California Management Review 22, no. 3 (Spring 1980), pp. 51–58.
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Leadership Approaches in India
• Focus should be on individuals and
maintaining awareness of the tasks that need
to be completed
• Indians and the Anglo-Americans are:
– Similar in attitudes toward capacity for leadership
and initiative, participation, and internal control
– Different in sharing information and objectives
• Show that participative leadership may be
common and effective in developing countries
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Leadership Approaches in Latin
America
• Transitional nature of managers within the
region increases as globalization increases
– Mexico – Combination of authoritarian and
participative behaviors
– Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia – Authoritarian
– Peru – Style is closer to those in the U.S. than
previously assumed
• Participative styles may gain importance as
countries become economically advanced
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Transformational, Transactional, and
Charismatic Leadership
• Transformational leaders: Motivate followers
to accept new goals and new ways of doing
things
• Transactional leaders: Exchange rewards for
effort and performance
• Charismatic leaders: Inspire and motivate
employees through charismatic traits and
abilities
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Findings and Insights about Leadership
• Research has discovered that:
– Much more universalism in leadership is present
than believed previously
– Most effective managers are transformational
leaders and are characterized by four interrelated
factors (4 I’s)
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4 I’s




Idealized influence
Inspirational motivation
Intellectual stimulation
Individualized consideration
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Qualities for Successful Leaders
• Ability to cooperate
• Independence
• Leadership ability
• Ability to take
initiatives
• Aim and result
orientation
• Creativity
• Ability to motivate
and inspire others
• Business orientation
• Age
• Extrovert personality
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Qualities for Successful Leaders
(continued)
• Customer ability
• Analytic Ability
• Ability to
communicate
• High level of energy
• Responsibility
• Enthusiasm and
involvement
• Organization skills
• Team builder
• Self-motivated
• Flexibility
• Precision
• Dynamic personality
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Leader Behavior, Leader Effectiveness,
and Leading Teams
• Culture is vital in explaining how leaders act in
order to be effective:
– In affective cultures, such as the United States,
leaders tend to exhibit their emotions
– In neutral cultures, such as Japan and China,
leaders tend not to show their emotions
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Cross-Cultural Leadership: Insights
from the GLOBE Study
• Leadership behavior can be categorized into:
– Charismatic/value-based: Captures the ability of
leaders to inspire, motivate, and encourage high
performance outcomes from others based on a
foundation of core values
– Team-oriented: Emphasizes effective team
building and implementation of a common goal
among team members
– Participative: Involves others in decisions and
decision implementation
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Cross-Cultural Leadership: Insights
from the GLOBE Study (continued)
– Humane-oriented: Comprises supportive and
considerate leadership
– Autonomous: Independent and individualistic
leadership behaviors
– Self-protective: Ensures safety and security of the
individual and group through status-enhancement
and face-saving
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Relationship between Cultural Values
and Leadership Attributes
• GLOBE researchers concluded the following:
– Collectivism I values (Sweden and other Nordic
and Scandinavian countries) were likely to view
Participative and Self-Protective leadership
behaviors favorably
– In-Group Collectivism II values (Philippines and
other East Asian countries) were positively related
to Charismatic/Value-Based leadership and TeamOriented leadership
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Relationship between Cultural Values
and Leadership Attributes (continued 1)
– Gender Egalitarian values (Hungary, Russia, and
Poland) were positively associated with
Participative and Charismatic/Value-based leader
attributes
– Performance Orientation values (Switzerland,
Singapore, and Hong Kong) were positively
associated with Participative and
Charismatic/Value-Based leader attributes
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Relationship between Cultural Values
and Leadership Attributes (continued 2)
– Future Orientation values (Singapore) were
positively associated with Self-Protective and
Humane-Oriented leader attributes
– Societal Uncertainty Avoidance values (Germany,
Denmark, and China) were positively associated
with Team-Oriented, Humane-Oriented, and SelfProtective leader attributes
– Societal Humane Orientation values (Zambia, the
Philippines, and Ireland) were positively
associated with Participative leader attributes
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Relationship between Cultural Values
and Leadership Attributes (continued 3)
– Societal Assertiveness values (the United States,
Germany, and Austria) were positively associated
with Humane-Oriented leader attributes
– Societal Power Distance values (Morocco, Nigeria,
and Argentina) were positively correlated with
Self-Protective and Humane-Oriented leader
attributes
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Positive Organizational Scholarship
(POS)
• Focuses on positive outcomes, processes, and
attributes of organizations and their members
• Consists of three subunits:
– Enablers – Capabilities, processes, and structure of
the environment
– Motivations – Unselfish, altruistic, or as having the
ability to contribute without self-regard
– Outcomes or effects – Vitality, meaningfulness,
exhilaration, and high-quality relationships
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Authentic Leadership
• Authentic leaders possess an allencompassing package of traits, styles,
behaviors, and credits
• Authentic leaders:
– Do not fake their actions
– Are driven from internal forces, not external
rewards
– Are unique and guide based on personal beliefs,
not others’ orders
– Act based on individual passion and values
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Authentic Leadership (continued)
• Authentic leaders must possess several
interrelated qualities
– Positive psychological aspects
– Positive morals to guide them through processes
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
How are Authentic Leaders different
from Traditional Leaders?
• Authentic leadership focuses primarily on the
internal aspects of the leader
• Transformational leadership focuses on
motivating others, which is a secondary
concern with authentic leadership
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Ethical and Responsible Leadership
• Ethical principles provide the philosophical
basis for responsible business practices
– Leadership defines the mechanism through which
these principles become actionable
• Responsible global leadership encompasses:
– Values-based leadership
– Ethical decision making
– Quality stakeholder relationships
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Ethical and Responsible Leadership
(continued)
• Responsible global leadership must be based
on:
– Core values and credos that reflect principled
business and leadership practices and high levels
of ethical and moral behavior
– Set of shared ideals that advance organizational
and societal well-being
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Servant Leadership
• Gives priority to needs of colleagues and
those they serve
• Qualities required
– Listening, empathy, healing, awareness,
persuasion, conceptualization, foresight,
stewardship, growth, and building community
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Entrepreneurial Leadership and
Mindset
• Reasons for high failure rate for international
new ventures
– Lack of capital and absence of clear goals and
objectives
– Failure in accurate assessment of market demand
and competition
• International entrepreneurial leaders must
possess cultural sensitivity, international vision,
and global mindset
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Be the International Management
Consultant
• As a management consultant, what
opportunities do you see for Cisco in
Germany?
• What are some potential benefits that
companies, like Cisco, can gain by partnering
with public sector entities and foreign
governments of developed nations as
opposed to ones in emerging nations?
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Review and Discuss
1. What cultures would be the most likely to
perceive differences between managerial and
leadership duties?
– What cultures would view them as the same?
– Use evidence to support your answer
2. Using the results of the classic Haire and
associates study as a basis for your answer,
compare and contrast managers’ attitudes
toward leadership practices in NordicEuropean and Latin-European countries
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Review and Discuss (continued 1)
3. Is there any relationship between company
size and European managers’ attitude toward
participative leadership styles?
4. Using the GLOBE study results and other
supporting data, determine what Japanese
managers believe about their subordinates
– How are these beliefs similar to those of U.S. and
European managers?
– How are these beliefs different?
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Review and Discuss (continued 2)
5. A U.S. firm is going to be opening a subsidiary
in Japan within the next six months
– What type of leadership style does research
show to be most effective for leading highachieving Japanese? Low-achieving Japanese?
– How are these results likely to affect the way that
U.S. expatriates should lead their Japanese
employees?
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Review and Discuss (continued 3)
6. What do U.S. managers need to know about
leading in the international arena?
– Identify and describe three important guidelines
that can be of practical value
7. Is effective leadership behavior universal, or
does it vary from culture to culture? Explain
8. What is authentic leadership?
– What is ethically responsible leadership?
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forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

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